Portions of this entry contributed by Roger Cooke Portions of this entry contributed by Margherita Barile Sofya Korvin-Krukoskaya, whose nickname was Sonja, was born in Moscow in the daughter of a general. She started studying mathematics books as a girl, encouraged by her paternal uncle Pyotr, but against the will of her father who, however, soon became aware of her remarkable talent and finally allowed her to take private lessons. Born in a strictly patriarchal society, she had to undergo a fictitious marriage to gain the freedom to travel, so in she married Vladimir Kovalevsky, a paleontologist and supporter of Darwinism, who had a troubled professional life and later committed suicide. In Heidelberg, Kovalevskaya received a special authorization to attend the lectures without being officially a student, since matriculation was not permitted for women.

Stockholm, Sweden, 10 February mathematics. Sonya Kovalevsky was the greatest woman mathe. She was the daughter of Vasily Korvin-Krukovsky, an artillery general, and Yelizaveta Shubert, both well-educated members of the Russian nobility.

The story ends with her fourteenth year. Study of that novel wall-covering provided Sonya with her introduction to the calculus. In she took a more rigorous course under the tutelage of Aleksandr N.

Strannolyubsky, mathematics professor at the naval academy in St. Petersburgwho immediately recognized her great potential as a mathematician. A favorite method of escaping from bondage was to arrange a marriage of conven. Thus, at age eighteen, Sonya con. In the couple went to Heidelberg, where Vladimir studied geology and Sonya took courses with Kirchhoff, Helmholtz, Koenigsberger, and du Bois-Reymond.

In she left for Berlin, where she studied with Weierstrass, and Vladimir went to Jena to obtain his doctorate. As a woman, she could not be admitted to university lectures; consequently Weierstrass tutored her pri.

Hence she returned to Russia where she was reunited with her husband. An unscrupulous company involved Vladimir in shady speculations that led to his disgrace and suicide in In Mittag-Leffler secured a life professorship for her. She completed research already begun on the subject of the propaga.

The judges considered the paper so exceptional that they raised the prize from 3, to 5, francs. Her subsequent research on the same subject won the prize from the Swedish Academy of Sciences in At the end of that year she was elected to membership in the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Less than two years later, at the height of her career. In mathematics her name is mentioned most frequently in connection with the Cauchy-Kovalevsky theorem, which is basic in the theory of partial differential equations.

Cauchy had examined a funda. Thus she was able to give his results a more polished and general form. In short, Cauchy, and later Kovalevsky, sought necessary and sufficient conditions for the solution of a partial differential equation to exist and to be unique, In the case of an ordinary differential equation the general solution contains arbitrary constants and therefore yields an infinity of formulas curves ; in the general solution of a partial differential equation, arbitrary functions occur and the plethora of formulas surfaces or hypersurfaces is even greater than in the ordinary case.

If the degree of the polynomial for y2 is greater than 2, elementary expression is not generally possible. If the degree is 3 or 4, the integral is described as elliptic because a special case of such an integral occurs in the problem of finding the length of an arc of an ellipse.

If the degree is greater than 4, the integral is called hyperelliptic. Finally, one comes to the general type that includes the others as special cases. Therefore it occurred to Abel and subsequently to Jacobi that the inverses of elliptic integrals might have a simpler theory than that of the integrals themselves.

The conjecture proved to be correct, for the inverses, namely the elliptic functions, lend themselves to a sort of higher trigo.

Inversion of Abelian integrals leads to Abelian functions which, in the first generalization beyond the elliptic functions, have two independent complex variables and four periods. Abel died within a year of the research he started in that area, and there was left to Weierstrass and his pupils the stupendous task of developing the theory of general Abelian functions having k complex variables and 2k periods and of considering the implications for the inverses, the corresponding Abelian integrals.

Complex analysis and nonelementary integrals were also a feature of the Kovalevsky paper which won the Bordin Prize. In her paper site generalized work of Euler, Poisson, and Lagrange, who had considered two elementary cases of the rotation of a rigid body about a fixed point.

Her predecessors had treated two symmetric forms of the top or the gyro. This case is an exceedingly difficult one and she was able to solve the differential equations of motion by the use of hyperelliptic integrals. Her solution was so general that no new case of rotatory motion about a fixed point has been researched to date.

Whereas, for example, he thought certain cross sections to be elliptical, she proved that they were merely egg.

Other researchers completed her task by establishing the instability of such motion. She was remembered by the eminent Russian historian Maxim Kovalevsky who was unrelated to her husband who dedicated several works to her.

She had met him when he came to lecture at Stock. It was believed that they were engaged to be married but that she hesitated because his new permanent position was in Paris, and joining him there would have meant sacrificing the life professorship for which she had worked so long and hard.Sofia Kovalevskaya's father, Vasily Korvin-Krukovsky, was a general in the Russian Army and was part of Russian nobility.

Her mother, Yelizaveta Shubert, was from a German family with many scholars; her maternal grandfather and great-grandfather were both mathematicians.

Sofya Kovalevskaya's A Russian Childhood As Poetic Autobiography Mary Ann Rygiel Biography, Volume 10, Number 3, Summer , pp. (Article) Published by University of Hawai'i Press DOI: For additional information about this article.

Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya: Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya, mathematician and writer who made a valuable contribution to the theory of partial differential equations. She was the first woman in modern Europe to gain a doctorate in mathematics, the first to join . In this post we will see a biography of Soviet woman mathematician by the title Love and Mathematics: Sofya Kovalevskaya by Pelageya r-bridal.com book was edited by .

Kovalevsky, Sonya (or Kovalevskaya, Sofya Vasilyevna) (r-bridal.com, Russia, 15 January “; r-bridal.comolm, Sweden, 10 February ) mathematics.. Sonya Kovalevsky was the greatest woman mathe. matician prior to the twentieth century. She was the daughter of Vasily Korvin-Krukovsky, an artillery general, and Yelizaveta Shubert, both well-educated members of the Russian nobility.

Jul 20, · Sofya Kovalevskaya was a Russian pioneer for women in Tzarist Russia. She was the first woman in the country to become a Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences/10(58).

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Sofia Kovalevskaya - Wikipedia