Most classical scientific treatises of classical antiquity written in Greek were unavailable, leaving only simplified summaries and compilations. Nonetheless, Roman and early medieval scientific texts were read and studied, contributing to the understanding of nature as a coherent system functioning under divinely established laws that could be comprehended in the light of reason. This study continued through the Early Middle Ages, and with the Renaissance of the 12th centuryinterest in this study was revitalized through the translation of Greek and Arabic scientific texts.
Pasteur progress against germ-born illness Lister antiseptic surgery Clearly, the 19th century was an age of progress in science and technology.
It seemed also like European society was making progress of a different sort as well. The 19th century was an age of relative peace and prosperity for most of the countries of Europe. Now how did this happen? How did European society make so much progress in the 19th century?
It seems to me that this progress came about, in part at least, as a result of a combination of liberal and conservative ideas. During the first part of the Age of progress for europe science century well, at least after the Napoleonic wars were over inconservative ideas had the upper hand in Europe.
Particularly important were the conservative principles enunciated at the Congress of Vienna in The Congress of Vienna was a series of meetings held to decide what would be done to tidy up after the Napoleonic wars.
It involved representatives of the Quadruple Alliance nations Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austriathe countries that had combined to defeat Napoleon. The task facing these representatives was enormous.
Napoleon had totally redrawn the map of Europe, and he had introduced radical changes wherever his troops had had control. How would the Congress of Vienna restore order? Well, before getting down to the details of the solution, they agreed to certain general principles, conservative principles designed to create lasting peace in Europe.
The return to legitimate authority 2. The balance of power 3. The concert of Europe Who would rule the various areas of Europe?
As much as possible, the Congress of Vienna returned control to the traditional ruling houses of Europe the Bourbons, the Habsburgs, etc. Also, in order to prevent any single country from attempting to dominate all of Europe as France had done under Napoleonthe Congress of Vienna insisted on a balance of power.
The settlement was designed to insure that there would be a number of strong countries, with no one country so strong that it could dominate. On the continent, Russia, Austria, and Prussia would all have considerable strength. But to ensure balance, even defeated France was left with a considerable amount of power: Finally, the representatives of the Congress of Vienna agreed that they would not act unilaterally in addressing European problems.
What made these principles work is that they had the support of the strongest power in continental Europe, Russia. Further, Alexander proposed that the nations of Europe adopt a set of higher principles in their relationships to one another. Alexander proposed what he called The Holy Alliance, an agreement of the major leaders of Europe to abide by Christian principles in their dealings with one another.
Many European rulers refused to have anything to do with the alliance.
However, Austria, Prussia, and of course Alexander's own Russia signed on. Did this Holy Alliance make any difference? It's hard to say: Alexander's successor and brother, Nicholas I was even more willing to use Russian troops to maintain the status quo in Europe. But why would anyone want a revolution?
Hadn't Europe learned anything from the French Revolution? But there were still many people in Europe who wanted to see major political changes. In particular, what is called liberalism was an important force for change. Now liberals in the 19th century were very different from the people we call liberals in American politics today.
Probably the easiest way to understand 19th century liberals is to associate them with liberty.
Basically, what 19th century liberals wanted was, not more government which is what today's so-called liberals generally wantbut more freedom.
They wanted to see established representative governments, governments like that of Great Britain. In addition, 19th century Liberals believed that political freedom would increase with the victory of what they called nationalism.
Nationalism is an important movement, not just in the 19th century, but in the 20th century as well.Popes and Science the History of the Papal Relations to Science During the Middle Ages and Down to Our Own Time. Kessinger Publishing. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a philosophical movement that took place primarily in Europe and, later, in North America, during the late 17 th and early 18 th century.
The history of science during the Age of Enlightenment traces developments in science and technology during the Age of Reason, and was embedded with the Enlightenment ideal of advancement and progress. Whitehead, Barbara J., ed. Women's Education in Early Modern Europe: A History, New York: Garland.
Originally Answered: Ttp://Why did science make little real progress in Europe in the Middle Ages? What we might today term 'science' (or proto-science and natural philosophy) actually made a lot of progress in the Middle Ages, especially in the later periods.
The 19th century: The Age of Progress I. Conservative Ideas A. Congress of Vienna (,) ii. no dominance b.
|Enlightenment - HISTORY||Science, Epistemology and Metaphysics in the Enlightenment In this era dedicated to human progress, the advancement of the natural sciences is regarded as the main exemplification of, and fuel for, such progress. It belongs centrally to the agenda of Enlightenment philosophy to contribute to the new knowledge of nature, and to provide a metaphysical framework within which to place and interpret this new knowledge.|
|This article is a part of the guide:||History of science in classical antiquity As Roman imperial authority effectively ended in the West during the 5th century, Western Europe entered the Middle Ages with great difficulties that affected the continent's intellectual production dramatically. Most classical scientific treatises of classical antiquity written in Greek were unavailable, leaving only simplified summaries and compilations.|
|The Dark Ages - Was Science Dead in Medieval Society?||Pasteur progress against germ-born illness Lister antiseptic surgery Clearly, the 19th century was an age of progress in science and technology.|
Conert of Europe i. countries work together ii. meetings to resolve crises c. Return to traditional authority i. old dynasties (Hapsburgs, Romanovs) 3.
science and technology up 4. wages and diet increase d. Not what. The Late Middle Ages, from until , saw progress speed up, as thinkers continued the work of scholasticism, adding to the philosophy underpinning science, Late Middle Age made sophisticated observations and theories that were sadly superseded by the work of later r-bridal.comm of Ockham, in the 14th century, proposed his idea of.