Inthe Institute of Medicine issued a groundbreaking report that shone a spotlight on the problem of racial and ethnic disparities in health care in the United States. The reasons behind this phenomenon are complex and opaque. There is no single explanation, and in many cases, we do not have an explanation.
Promote the consistency and equity of care through the use of evidence-based guidelines. Health disparities can be further reduced by implementing proper disease management guidelines and addressing access, language, and cultural barriers. Disparities in three of the six focus areas are discussed below.
Cardiovascular disease According to the National Center for Health Statistics, cardiovascular disease was the first leading cause of death and stroke was the third leading cause of death for people of all ages in the United States from to However, African-American and Hispanic women, who have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than do white women, showed smaller improvements in awareness.
The percentage of women who recognize cancer as the leading cause of disease has also significantly decreased. With the identification of cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death among women in the United States,substantial studies have focused on sex disparities in myocardial infarction MI outcomes.
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a CDC state-based telephone survey, was utilized to determine if disparities were evident in aspirin use for diabetics who had cardiovascular disease.
Data analyzed for revealed less frequent use of aspirin for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease in diabetic women versus diabetic Barriers and disparities in health care.
The results showed that women and African Americans were significantly less likely than men and whites to be referred for cardiac catheterization.
Disparities in health and health care remain a persistent challenge in the United States. Disparities not only result in inequities but also limit . Aug 17, · Differences in access to healthcare across different populations is the main reason for existing disparities in healthcare provision. These differences occur for several reasons and some of 5/5(4). Elimination of Health Disparities America benefits when everyone has the opportunity to live a long, healthy, and productive life, yet health disparities persist. A health disparity is a difference in health outcomes across subgroups of the population.
These results were later criticized because data were reported using odds ratios instead of risk ratios. Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus affects approximately Diabetes is more prevalent in minority populations than whites. African Americans were less likely than whites to 1 have glycosylated hemoglobin or lipid levels monitored, 2 receive ophthalmologic care or vaccinations, and 3 obtain a follow-up appointment with a physician within four weeks of a hospital admission.
Women were less satisfied with the health care received, as they were more likely to receive treatment in an emergency department. Women and patients with less than a high school education received fewer vaccinations, and the elderly received fewer eye examinations.
The authors posited that African Americans avoid medical testing, receive less aggressive medical care, and experience the inconvenience associated with the lack of transportation to medical appointments. When the data were controlled by age, race or ethnicity, education, income, and insurance status, diabetic patients were less likely than nondiabetic patients to receive dental care.
Hispanics and whites with diabetes were less likely than their nondiabetic counterparts to receive dental care in a month period. No differences were noted in the dental care received by diabetic and nondiabetic African Americans.
Both diabetic and nondiabetic groups stated no perceived need, fear, cost, and other issues as reasons for their lack of care. In a secondary analysis, diabetics were less likely to visit a dentist in the past 12 months than they were to visit their physician.
These findings indicate that dental care is highly sensitive to patient income; Medicare offers no dental coverage, and Medicaid offers limited care for adults. The authors concluded that targeted interventions are needed to increase the access to dental visits for minorities and that dentists must increase their awareness of culturally competent care.
When race was included in the model, whites were more likely to receive influenza vaccine than were African Americans, and whites were more likely than African Americans and Hispanics to receive pneumococcal vaccines.
Access to care, having more than a high school education, and active employment are additional significant factors associated with the receipt of vaccinations. The authors found that patients who asked their provider more questions during an initial screening examination were more likely to have diagnostic resolution within 90 days, compared with those who did not have such communication.
While most received standard surgical treatment, the odds of not receiving standard treatment were higher for African Americans than for whites for both men and women. A recent literature review revealed racial disparities in the perception, assessment, and treatment of cancer pain in different settings.
Analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System found that the rates of colorectal cancer screening were higher in the elderly compared with younger adults and that mammography screening was underused in the elderly.
Congress instituted the NIH Revitalization Act, which states that women and minorities must be included in all clinical research studies and Phase III clinical trials and that trials must be designed to permit valid subgroup analyses.Interview with Glenn Flores on the effect of language barriers in health care and the need for medical interpreter services.
() Download A year-old Latino boy arrived at a Boston emergency. Aug 17, · Disparities in Access to Health Care. Structural barriers – Examples of structural barriers include lack of transport to healthcare providers, inability to obtain convenient appointment 5/5(4).
Nondiscriminatory Quality Healthcare Services.
Some groups of people have been found to have barriers to health care service access: Certain racial and ethnic groups. Health care disparities occur in the context of broader inequality.
There are many sources across health systems, providers, patients and managers that contribute to disparities. Bias, stereotyping, prejudice and clinical uncertainty contribute to disparities.
Aug 17, · Differences in access to healthcare across different populations is the main reason for existing disparities in healthcare provision. These differences occur for several reasons and some of 5/5(4).
Sep 15, · Disparities in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer among the sexes and racial groups and possible interventions are discussed.
The ongoing process to identify and reduce health disparities has engaged numerous .