I make a claim and explain why it is controversial. I make a claim but don't explain why it is controversial.
His ideas can be recruited to support the little-known Austrian school of economics, to improve the quality of scientific research and to indicate how a unit on critical thinking can be a core subject in liberal education.
Some would say the same applies to Austrian economics. The paper then turns to the rising tide of concern about the quality and reliability of the scientific research that is published in some fields. Finally there is a proposal for short course to introduce various forms of critical appraisal of ideas that could be a core component of liberal education to promote imaginative problem-solving and lateral thinking.
His philosophy can be described as critical rationalism with a historical and evolutionary approach. He liked to sum it up in two nutshells. The other is the four-stage problem solving scheme that is described below. Popper explains in detail how to modify a particular SA explanation when it seems to be in conflict with the empirical data, internally inconsistent, or in conflict with more corroborated theories — if there are many paths to effective criticism, then preserving the RP and modifying the rest of the SA could be a perfectly reasonable response.
Popper was born in Vienna, the son of a prominent liberal lawyer with scholarly interests. He dropped out of high school and attended lectures at the university as an unmatriculated student, trained as a cabinet-maker and eventually matriculated.
In he qualified to teach high school science and mathematics after a course that included a doctoral thesis on habit formation in children. He worked on the philosophy of science in his spare time and in he published Logik der Forschung that appeared many years later in English Popper He criticized the traditional idea that scientific theories are developed by collecting observations followed by confirmation of the theories with more observations.
He argued that the creation of theories is a matter of inspiration and guesswork because new ideas arise as conjectures or speculations and the really vital function of observations is to act as tests or attempted falsifications of theories. In the s biological themes became more prominent in his work and he contributed to the revival of evolutionary epistemology by exploring the principle of natural selection in relation to the development of scientific theories and other forms of knowledge.
Evolutionary epistemology is concerned with problem-solving and error-elimination under various forms of selective pressure unlike theories of knowledge that focus on the justification of beliefs and the numerical probability of theories.
Popper started with the old idea that knowledge grows by trial and error or in more learned terms by conjecture and refutation. He postulated that every organism from the amoeba to Einstein can be described as constantly engaged in problem solving not necessarily consciously of course.
Innovations in the plant and animal world arise from mutations which generate new reactions, new organs, new forms of life.
For humans the most important innovations are new ideas.
Living organisms confront selective pressures exerted by the biological environment and competing forms of life. Ideas meet the competition of alternative theories, critical arguments and experimental tests. In response the organism generates tentative solutions. These are subjected to the process of error elimination by various selective pressures.
Humans can make the process of error elimination conscious and systematic by critical discussion and experimental testing. In the course of these activities new problems emerge.
This approach to scientific knowledge has at least two important consequences; 1 it resolves conflicting ideas about the various processes and activities which are involved in creative thinking and problem-solving and 2 it highlights the importance of finding unresolved issues problems and the willingness to recognize them, even to create them!
On the first point the evolutionary schema can be used to challenge views about science that can tend to promote antagonism between the rational scientific and the imaginative literary frames of mind.
This conflict has broad cultural implications. The triumph of Newtonian mechanics was widely perceived as the full flowering of the so-called inductive method to find the truth by accumulating observations.
This achievement provoked a revolt by romantics and poets who could not stomach a view of human activity that had no place for the imagination. Nor could they accept the mechanical universe. The result of this collision has been a kind of cultural clash with imagination set against reason, the organic set against the mechanical, the inspiration of the poet set against the empiricism of the scientist.
These elements include traditional beliefs, criticism, logic, imagination and experimental trials. These elements each have a role to play and so there is no need for the tensions and antagonisms that flow from partial and narrow views of problem-solving and creativity, whether in science, art, technology or daily life.
On the second point the schema brings out the importance of recognizing problems and working on them in a critical and imaginative spirit. In this schema a problem functions as an ecological niche to be colonised by tentative solutions.
Problems are welcomed as a challenge, not an impediment to science because they are the growing point or perhaps a habitat for new species of ideas.
This provides a theory of discovery, based on the creative function of criticism. To grasp the full power of evolutionary epistemology it is necessary to understand this creative function of criticism in generating problems that can be seen as spaces for new ideas Problems are the habitat where new ideas grow and criticism has two functions, which are about equally valuable: Watson and Crick systematically used the critical approach in their pursuit of the double helix structure of DNA.
As Crick described it: Our other advantage was that we had evolved unstated but fruitful methods of collaboration, something that was lacking in the London group. If either of us suggested a new idea the other, while taking it seriously, would attempt to demolish it in a candid but non hostile manner.
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English critical thinking a level revision notes. 13 September by. Copied and pasted "industrial revolution", profanity and all, and got a 5 on my essay for english.
Just pulled an all nighter studying for three tests and writing a six page essay. Revision notes on flaws and appeals in the Evaluating arguments section of paper 2 of the OCR Critical Thinking course.