The following information applies to the new Internal Assessment which will be submitted for the first time by students taking examinations in May The Internal Assessment is an individual project of 2, words maximum.
Money supply decreased considerably between Black Tuesday and the Bank Holiday in March when there were massive bank runs across the United States.
There are also various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists. The consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets.
Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought ever more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great History internal assessment great depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply greatly exacerbated History internal assessment great depression economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are almost evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending, particularly investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression.
There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse.
If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been far less severe and much shorter. In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment.
Keynes' basic idea was simple: As the Depression wore on, Franklin D. Roosevelt tried public worksfarm subsidiesand other devices to restart the U. According to the Keynesians, this improved the economy, but Roosevelt never spent enough to bring the economy out of recession until the start of World War II.
Real gross domestic product in Dollar blueprice index redmoney supply M2 green and number of banks grey.
Friedman and Schwartz argued that the downward turn in the economy, starting with the stock market crash, would merely have been an ordinary recession if the Federal Reserve had taken aggressive action. I would like to say to Milton and Anna: Regarding the Great Depression, you're right.
But thanks to you, we won't do it again. Friedman and Schwartz argued that, if the Fed had provided emergency lending to these key banks, or simply bought government bonds on the open market to provide liquidity and increase the quantity of money after the key banks fell, all the rest of the banks would not have fallen after the large ones did, and the money supply would not have fallen as far and as fast as it did.
This interpretation blames the Federal Reserve for inaction, especially the New York branch. By the late s, the Federal Reserve had almost hit the limit of allowable credit that could be backed by the gold in its possession.
This credit was in the form of Federal Reserve demand notes.
During the bank panics a portion of those demand notes were redeemed for Federal Reserve gold. Since the Federal Reserve had hit its limit on allowable credit, any reduction in gold in its vaults had to be accompanied by a greater reduction in credit. On April 5,President Roosevelt signed Executive Order making the private ownership of gold certificatescoins and bullion illegal, reducing the pressure on Federal Reserve gold.
When threatened by the forecast of a depression central banks should pour liquidity into the banking system and the government should cut taxes and accelerate spending in order to keep the nominal money stock and total nominal demand from collapsing. Outright leave-it-alone liquidationism was a position mainly held by the Austrian School.
The idea was the benefit of a depression was to liquidate failed investments and businesses that have been made obsolete by technological development in order to release factors of production capital and labor from unproductive uses so that these could be redeployed in other sectors of the technologically dynamic economy.
They argued that even if self-adjustment of the economy took mass bankruptcies, then so be it. Bradford DeLong point out that President Hoover tried to keep the federal budget balanced untilwhen he lost confidence in his Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon and replaced him.
According to a study by Olivier Blanchard and Lawrence Summersthe recession caused a drop of net capital accumulation to pre levels by If you go back to the s, which is a key point, here you had the Austrians sitting in London, Hayek and Lionel Robbins, and saying you just have to let the bottom drop out of the world.
You've just got to let it cure itself. You can't do anything about it. You will only make it worse. First it is not able to explain why the demand for money was falling more rapidly than the supply during the initial downturn in — These questions are addressed by modern explanations that build on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz but add non-monetary explanations.
Debt deflation Crowds outside the Bank of United States in New York after its failure in Irving Fisher argued that the predominant factor leading to the Great Depression was a vicious circle of deflation and growing over-indebtedness.The Formative assessments consist of flash cards, a word search, a quiz, and class discussion.
Flash cards will help students learn/memorize important vocabulary words and important people in history. Review the causes of the Great Depression with special emphasis on the role of the Stock Market Crash.
If students will be writing an essay as part of their assessment, have them create a graphic organizer of the causes of the Great Depression to . IB History These resources are specifically designed for teachers and students of the International Baccalaureate History Syllabus.
IB History Internal Assessment (IA) IB History Past Papers & Exam Tips. IB History Video Resources. 11th Grade Economics Outline. 12th Grade Government Outline. Tutorials. Photos/Past Events of my Classes. For a copy of the Great Depression of the Americas timeline, click on the image below. Transform your history classroom. ActiveHistory provides educational, award-winning interactive simulations, decision-making games, self-marking quizzes, high-quality worksheets and detailed lesson plans for the history classroom. The aim of my Internal Assessment is to find out the extent of the impact that the Great Depression on international peace in the period of I will research my investigation in some of the many books published about the Great Depression, and also including various Internet sources.
List at least three causes of the Great Depression. People buying on credit, low wages, unemployment, overproduction, stock market crash List at least three effects of the Great Depression. Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation r-bridal.com caption says, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought.".
The United States contains a highly diverse population. Unlike a country such as China that largely incorporated indigenous peoples, the United States has a diversity that to a great degree has come from an immense and sustained global immigration. Probably no other country has a wider range of racial, ethnic, and cultural types than does the United States.